Update Oct 13, 2014 news Volume 13 Issue 10

Sailing Away

These small creatures were seen about ten miles west of Point Loma on September 2. The Velella (linked to this wiki) is not a Jo Rawling mythical creature, but a hydrozoan predatory animal related to jellyfish. This one was found about ten miles off Point Loma, and photographed. They are free floating and tend to sail downwind at an angle to the wind. These were all knocked down by wind and waves.



The Blackbirds

On a bright and sunny morning the boats in the marina are covered with dew. This makes it easy for a small bird to get a drink of water. The blackbirds often are seen to be taking water from between their toes. They also are observed with their heads placed entirely between their feet for some reason.




Regardless of their other injuries, the blackbirds have come through their molt with shiny new feathers.



The Ocean Sunfish (Wikipedia) is often seen floating around aimlessly on the surface offshore here. According to the Wikipedia link "Some sources indicate the internal organs contain a concentrated neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin". They are considered to be extremely bad luck by recreational fishermen, who never touch them.


Wiggles the Starling Update October 13

From Wiggles the starling October 10:

TO ANYONE WHO CALLS THE GOV"S OFFICE ON BEHALF OF SHERRY AND WIGGLES: It is important to stress that they are applying conflictual standards to Wiggles, in one context classifying him as "wildlife" and penalizing Sherry for possessing and rehabbing him without a license while in the other, acknowledging that European Starlings are non-native introduced species which are not governed by laws pertaining to wildlife, but instead only have general animal cruelty statute protection. Well, they cannot have it both ways and that's what they are doing. That the USFWS stonewalled so quickly is appalling and alarming. The only open route seems to be to get the governor to persuade the judge to make a one-time pardon to release Wiggles to Sherry.

 I was just thinking this morning...

If a horse is born in a barn, is it wildlife?
If a cat is born in a barn, is it wildlife?
If a cow is born in a barn, it is wildlife?
If a mouse was born in a barn, is it wildlife? 

I'd like to hear their opinion on that one, 
since mice, like starlings are invasive and 
you can exterminate them.

From Wiggles the starling October 9:

The Lifes and Loves of Jally blogspot "You can take him away, but you'll never take away our bond ”

From Wiggles the starling October 9:

I've been notified that some people are having some luck talking to a very nice woman named Maureen at the governors office. She's been getting a lot of calls. Thank you all so much!!!! Please keep trying! 717 787 2500 Any info needed I'm in Waynesboro and in Franklin Co.

This was posted to me on Wiggles page: I have spent a good deal of time today calling around & introducing myself as a rehabilitator in Michigan that also owns a pet starling,and offering them a win-win situation for the controversy about Wiggles.I offered to transport him here with the help of donations from other starling lovers and re-home him. The judge`s office said they would relay the information to him and took down my information. The governor`s office said they would relay the information to him. The Franklin region of the PA game commission said it was out of their hands and the judge has already made his decision,that the bird would remain in the custody of the rehabber.I asked the officer if the rehabber has already euthanized him or is she going to? He paused for a few seconds and told me the bird is still alive,but he does not know what happens from here. I told him that since it is illegal to have one in captivity,the rehabber won`t be able to keep it.He didn`t say anything for a second and thanked me for calling. So,hopefully,the governer will get the message as well as the judge,and contact me.I`ve done all I can. OK, my question is: I don't understand how this is out of the GC's hands if the judge ruled Wiggles to them. He's their "property" and according to the the judge and the GC, always has been. Who's "hands" is it in now???!!!

So, how do I become an assistant? § 147.301. Definitions. The following words and terms, when used in this subchapter, have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise: Assistant—Individuals appointed by the wildlife rehabilitator to provide food and housing for wildlife being rehabilitated.

Keep telling me no. I don't fucking care! It only makes me even more determined to fight for HIS LIFE!!!!! I will keep fighting until my dying days! I hope you don't believe in reincarnation or ghosts because I will haunt your ass!!!!! Excuse the language...not a good day!

USFWS said to contact the state. I'd need a permit to have him on any level, federal or state. We all know the state won't give me a permit as they've already said there is no permit I can get to have him. I would need a state permit first before having a federal permit.

From Wiggles the starling October 3:

VERY URGENT!!!!!! NEED YOU TO CALL TO SAVE A LIFE!!!!!!!!!!!!! PLEASE READ THIS MESSAGE - PHONE NUMBERS BELOW: The state of Pennsylvania is going to kill my pet disabled starling. The judge who ruled on this is a mean bastard, every lawyer has turned me down, my last chance to appeal WAS TODAY or the bird will be euthanized. NO ONE WILL HELP. The ONLY chance is if a lot of people call Gov. Corbett and ask him to ask the Judge to let me get Wiggles the starling back. This is the ONLY way the ruling can be overturned - as a one-time exception. It CAN be done. ********************************************************************************** There is no time for emails - please call: Call Pennsylvania Governor Tom Corbett at 717-787-2500 Ask him to make one call to Judge Douglas Herman and give Wiggles the starling a pardon. Call Judge Douglas Herman at 717-261-3840 and tell him to make a one-time pardon to let Wiggles go home to me!

Wiggles the starling facebook page

From Wiggles the starling October 1:

"An email from a lawyer I was talking with last night. Well, after reading through your conversation, I am more convinced that the GC is thinking that you didn’t obtain the bird from a lawful source, so they can’t issue you a permit. That’s totally a guess, but it would make sense. Re: USFWS and other states, I’d be careful about generalizing until the research is done – unless there is a specific treaty that applies, the USFWS role is limited unless you are talking about a threatened/endangered species. (Even under the Migratory Bird Treaty, USFWS is not the exclusive federal agency – the Dept of Agriculture plays a role of some sort.) I’ve never see the state rely on another state’s law for regulations, etc. They’d rather have PA-centric statutes and regulations, unless it is a uniform law. I did a search for exotic and wildlife in the PA regulations and didn’t see anything that creates a different definition from that in 58 Pa Code 137.1. I’d also note that there probably aren’t many environmental attorneys in PA with experience in this particular issue. Everyone is probably going to have to research it. Good luck!

Wiggles the Starling

Editorial Notes:

Trying to keep a wild bird alive is a daunting problem. The Opinion Page at this link explains most of the reasons. A state licensed rescue and rehabilitation agency in most US states is a nonprofit corporation that must make money like any other. Handling animals is an unnecessary expense and in many cases, state regulations limit this effort by requiring euthanization or early release of animals. Licensed agencies take in donations and produce dead animals. State license application procedures are designed so nobody can apply, books and training are not available without a license, and a veterinarian won't help because he doesn't have a license either. A case like "Wiggles the Starling" reveals the worst horrors of the rehab business, and exposing this is our best hope for legal reform. Working through the current legal system is our only option, but since the state makes its own laws for its own convenience, this is bound to fail. And the news media loves the nonprofit agencies. They are happy to have a light-hearted space filler at the end of a broadcast to praise a nonprofit doing its regular job: self promotion, advertising, fund raising, and "education". We are clearly in the midst of a global extinction event. Everything is changing now. But politicians still cling to the old system that promotes money for nonprofit corporations and produces more dead animals. Why?

September 26: latest from Wiggles the Starling on facebook:

"Having an intense email conversation with the lawyer. I've emailed him twice before with no reply, yet telling him that he lost this case for me hurt his ego and he had to reply. He said he understands if I want to blame him for "our" loss. Excuse me??!!If he would've been standing in front of me, I would've totally flipped out on him! Our loss??? He received money for doing paperwork and a little bit of research. Very little research! Wiggles will lose his life and I lost a living breathing being, someone I consider my child. Tell me again how this is "our" loss!! He said that at any time I could've represented myself in this. I tried! And I told him so! I told him what he did was not worth the money we spent."

Keep up to date on the fight to free Wiggles the Starling from the Pennsylvania Game Commission by reading the change.org petition status (below). More than a thousand supporters signed by September.

Free Wiggles and Make European Starlings Legal to Own in PA Change.org Petition Site What the state has done to these folks is just inconceivable. It's just like having a child kidnapped by terrorists, except there is no ransom. I hope their lawyer is preparing a huge lawsuit if the bird is not returned safe and sound. It's not too late to sign the petition.

From Facebook Member Wiggles the Starling

"This was posted on my FB page by a good friend of ours. I have some awesome friends! Thank you Sharon! Sherry I am going to get extremely nasty and rude in this statement. The first thing I hope is the the f**cking bitch that reported you saving wiggles sees this post. What did you think the outcome would be when they seized Wiggles from the only home and caretakers he has ever had? Did you even stop to think what it would do to Sherry and her family? Do you have a problem or problems with people that have such love and affection and devotion to saving a life? This bird has done absolutely nothing except learn to live a wonderful life with Sherry. She is so knowledgeable in all types of birds, they are her passion. If Sherry had not stepped in to try and save Wiggles, it more then likely would have died. Is that so wrong to have given it a chance to live?? Do you like to hurt people? Tear them down? Are you a jealous person, because Sherry took the time to save this bird. My opinion of you, is that you are a nasty bitch who is unhappy in your life, jealous of other people and cause hurt, pain and loss to anyone you can. That gets you off, you sick piece of shit. What was so wrong with what Sherry did for this tiny bird. She gave it a life to live. If you tried to destroy. Sherry, you have not. She is a very strong , determined fighter! She has many people who are helping her and have her back so we can bring Wriggles home. As for you Karma is a bitch and it will come around and bite you in your ass big time. I think what you did was horrible, a waste of taxpayers money bring in the game warden, police to take the bird away. All this bull shit for one tiny bird who just wants to live his life. Do you feel like a man? A person that causes this much trouble over a tiny bird, to me that says you are one sick psycho bastard. Grow up and grow a set. What goes around comes around, remember that. I hope you get yours full plus some. Go climb under a rock and stay there."

Another Similar Case: Nutkin the Squirrel

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Appellee, v. Barbara Gosselin, Appellant Animal Legal & Historical Center " the cheery Pennsylvania slogan "You've got a friend in Pennsylvania" did not apply to four-legged critters like Nutkin.”

An ominous cloud behind couple's fight for pet squirrel Philly.com "One of the greatest powers law enforcement officers enjoy is discretion. Have you ever gotten a warning instead of a speeding ticket? Has an officer directed you to fix that defective taillight instead of citing you for it? People with badges use discretion all the time.This wasn't a fight the Game Commission had to pick. Unless it wanted to, for reasons that had nothing to do with protecting the commonwealth from overweight squirrels.”

Wiggles the Starling

The judge rejected our lawyer's emergency petition for release of Wiggles the Starling on September 11. Links to these documents are listed below:

Emergency Petition

Court Order

It's rather like having a child kidnapped except with no ransome.


Sherry Vulgamott:

"Call Senator Alloway. Phone: 717-264-6100 Tell him the judge denied our request to bring Wiggles home. If enough people lay on the legislatures they can persuade the judge to look into it again. Use his name. The judge said that since Wiggles is a bird that would typically live outside, he is a wild bird and therefor is sole property of the game commission. This is solely up to the judge's discretion. He can change his mind if enough people help".

"I hope the person who turned me in for having a "wild" animal can sleep at night, because I can't. This "wild" animal that you turned me in for having is no more wild than you or me. Please tell me what other "wild" animal enjoyed watching cartoons and cuddling with a person? What other "wild" animal can form such a close bond to a person and can talk? For the record, every other state in the union defines starlings as non native and not a part of wildlife. PA doesn't even specifically state that starlings are wildlife either. Their definition of wildlife is any animal, whether living or dead, or any part of an animal whether it is processed as food or not is wildlife. That means every person who has an animal head on their wall or has deer jerky in their freezer is breaking the law. Further more, let's look at other people that the state just turns a blind eye to...people who gather up pigeons to be shoved in boxes and shot at days later. It has been documented that these pigeons are taken FROM THE WILD, and from neighboring states which is also illegal, but yet the state refuses to do anything about them. And, it's just been brought to my attention that people have been rounding up the wild mustangs in PA to sell. There are ads listing WILD mustangs on the internet. Judge Herman said that ALL animals that you see outside are wild. Wiggles is called a wild animal, gets confiscated, and called contraband. But yet, these people are allowed to keep doing what they're doing with no repercussions. How are these cases different? How is this right? Yep, I certainly hope you can sleep at night knowing you broke my heart and killed an innocent bird who had such a will to live. He was not hurting anyone by being in my home. In fact, he helped so many people! You are what's wrong with this world. You are a murderer."

Veterinary letter from Pennsylvania Game Commission.

Editorial Notes:

There are questions and concerns following this diagnosis. Rickets is caused by a dietary deficiency, not the injury sustained by the bird before his rescue that actually preceded his condition. The diet fed to the starling was considered entirely healthful for a bird such as Wiggles. Obviously, considering the political bias influencing this diagnosis, an independent second opinion is required. In any case, my experience with veterinarians has shown that they almost exclusively deal with cats and dogs. It is unusual to find a vet who is experienced in birds and reptiles, and without further credentials, most veterinarians have little credibility with birds. The Pennsylvania Game Commission is simply attempting to discredit Ms. Vulgamott's care of the starling to weaken her case of invoking discretion, in the face of common sense and compassion for life.

In every case of corruption in state and local government, it is usually easy to see who is making money on the deal. It is still not clear why the various state laws still stubbornly promote extermination of wild birds for the financial benefit of unethical licensed rehab agencies, and who in government profits from it. It is especially interesting how the California Department of Fish and Game changed its name to Department of Fish and Wildlife, and is currently updating its website to take advantage of the extinction event. However, Rehab Regulations still contain the same daunting boiler plate language, and remain unchanged since 2007.

Save Wiggles the European Starling

Free Wiggles and Make European Starlings Legal to Own in PA Change. org More than a thousand have signed this petition to the Pennsylvania Game Commission to release Wiggles the Starling

News Links

This section presents links to news agencies with the intent of showing news articles as they were written by the originating author. Websites using obnoxious popup advertising or employing HTML tricks to discourage taking quotes, protected by US Code Title 17, will not be referred here.

Species that seem today to be doing fine may be sensitive to change in ways that are difficult to foresee. And we are are now changing the planet at a speed that’s probably unprecedented in at least sixty million years. The New Yorker "Species that seem today to be doing fine may be sensitive to change in ways that are difficult to foresee. And we are are now changing the planet at a speed that’s probably unprecedented in at least sixty million years.”

Giant Man-Eating Catfish Finally Caught In Mekong River World News Daily Report "Villagers were horrified when they found within the beast’s belly the remnants of what seemed to be a human baby carcass, recalls local fisherman Kuen Mohk, fighting to hold back his tears”

This Is Why Japan's So Called Scientific Whaling Was Found To Be Unlawful Business Insider, Australia "the court also took a close look at the program’s design and implementation, deciding that they were not in line with the program’s stated objectives.”

17 Of The Most Unusual Beaches Around The World bored panda " One of the most striking differences in many of these beaches are the different sand colors. ”

California homes lack water meters during drought Associated Press " More than 235,000 homes and businesses in the state are not equipped with meters ”

Captain jailed for being drunk at helm of Tay cargo vessel herald scotland "He was caught after a pilot at Dundee harbour came on board to help him guide the 250ft boat under the Tay road and rail bridges in the city. The pilot, Barry Nisbet, called harbour officials, who notified police.”

California blue whales bounce back to near historic numbers BBC "Writing in the journal, Marine Mammal Science, researchers from the University of Washington say the California blue whales are now at 97% of their historical levels.”

SpaceX Rocket Base to Be Built Near Endangered Sea Turtle Nesting Scientific American "Boca Chica, a finger of mostly undeveloped land in south Texas between the Brownsville Ship Channel and a part of the Rio Grande forming the riverine U.S.-Mexico border, is a haven for many endangered and threatened animals. ”

Pictures 'Show Silt Damage Caused By Bimini Ferry' Tribune 242 "The Coalition has been fighting RWB’s construction of a cruise ship terminal, 1,000-foot pier and man-made island and dredging activities associated with it. Its concerns include turbidity issues related to the SuperFast ferry operation”

BLOOM and Lush, fresh homemade cosmetics campaign for a historic EU ban on deep-sea bottom trawling BLOOM"The fundamental problem: deep-sea bottom trawls destroy vulnerable marine ecosystems and this happens in our European waters! ”

Whale, dolphin beach themselves on NE Fla. beaches News 4 (TV) Jax "ST. JOHNS COUNTY, Fla. -A whale beached itself in southern St. Johns County on Tuesday afternoon, and a dolphin beached itself in Atlantic Beach on Tuesday morning. Both have since died.”

SeaWorld Hit With Lawsuit Over Failure to Advise on 'Blackfish' Impact the Hollywood Reporter "SEAS ly claimed that the drop in attendance was a product of the timing of Easter, when in reality, the bad publicity from the Blackfish film caused families to stay away from SEAS parks," states the lawsuit.”

Blamed for Bee Collapse, Monsanto Buys Leading Bee Research Firm Real farmacy " the company’s genetically modified corn may be devastating the dying bee population, it is evident that Monsanto is under serious fire for their role in the downfall of the vital insects. It is therefore quite apparent why Monsanto bought one of the largest bee research firms on the planet.”

Drought on display West Hawaii Today "In years with adequate rainfall, when there is water under the bridge, there is easy viewing proximity to the colorful array of migratory waterfowl that visit Lake Hodges in fall and spring. Unfortunately, in the current drought, you can’t even see the water, let alone the birds, from the bridge.”

Endangered ducks successfully translocated to Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Real farmacy " Twenty-eight endangered Laysan ducks, Anas laysanesis, were successfully translocated on Sept. 3 within Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument.”

Japan tries everything it can to start whaling again New Scientist "In March, the International Court of Justice in The Hague, the Netherlands, ruled that Japan's "JARPA II" scientific whaling programme in Antarctic waters between 2005 and 2014 was illegal”

Common Birds “In Steep Decline” Bay Weekly "Thirty-three species common in the United States are “in steep decline” according to the 2014 State of the Birds Report from the North American Bird Conservation Initiative.”

Aliens among us: What strange species are making England home? BBC "There is also increasing evidence that more unusual species are establishing colonies here, perhaps because of the warmer weather. So who are the aliens among us?”

Humpback whale numbers off WA coast 'unsustainable' WA Today "The former head of West Australia's Environmental Protection Authority says if there were not already "too many" whales off the state's coast, there soon will be.”

Saving the whales is not over by a long shot ABC Australia "While the fight for whales has been going on for some time, the world's whales are still not safe. Unfortunately, despite the landmark decision by the ICJ, it appears that Japan has decided not to take this opportunity to end its whaling program.”

35 Nations Exhort Iceland To End Whaling The Reykjavik Grapevine "We, the European Union and its Member States and the Government of the United States of America, Australia, Brazil, Israel and New Zealand, wish to express our strong opposition to Iceland’s continuing and increased commercial harvest of whales...”

Bluefin Tuna Are Showing Up in the Arctic—and That’s Not Good News Take part"From June to the end of August of this year, Greenland fishing vessels caught 21 tuna—in addition to 65,000 metric tons of mackerel, according to Greenland Today.”

Unusual species in Alaska waters indicate parts of Pacific warming dramatically Alaska Dispatch "A giant hotspot in the North Pacific Ocean may help explain why a massive ocean sunfish was spotted in Prince William Sound this month and a skipjack tuna was caught in a gillnet weeks earlier near the mouth of the Copper River, scientists say.”

Correction: Drought-Bird Migration story Associated Press "Even before the drought, human development did away with 95 percent of the state's wetlands. Rice farmers — who flood their fields in winters to let old, harvested rice stalks rot away — over the years became essential substitute providers of wetlands, but water curtailments have hit them hard..”

Sea Shepherd to switch campaign from whales to toothfish Sydney (AFP) "Conservation group Sea Shepherd Australia said Wednesday it will switch its Southern Ocean campaign from whales to toothfish -- a rare species famed as "white gold" -- if Japan cancels this year's hunt in Antarctica..”

Angling Community Encouraged by Magnuson Bills Newswire "Representatives of the nation’s 11 million saltwater anglers and the industries they support, which collectively have a $70 billion annual economic impact, commended Senator Marco Rubio (R-Fla.) for his work on the Florida Fisheries Improvement Act, introduced today. ”

SeaWorld slams activists and urges truth Elizabeth Batt "Every once in a while an article or blurb flutters across social media that makes you do a double take. Such was the case on September 17 when this narrative published by Sea Inside floated my way.”

Sea Change: The Ecological Disaster That Nobody Sees By Richard Schiffman, Truthout | Report "On September 21, in what is being advance-billed as the largest climate march in history, thousands of protesters will converge on New York City to focus public attention on the slow-motion train wreck of global warming..”

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Appellee, v. Barbara Gosselin, Appellant Michigan State University " the cheery Pennsylvania slogan "You've got a friend in Pennsylvania" did not apply to four-legged critters like Nutkin.”

Researchers seek permission to collect whale snot with drones engadget " These researchers have been working on Snot Bot for years, but now they're trying to urge the Federal Aviation Commission to give them permission to use it on real whales."

Even 2% increased mortality can lead to extinction of dolphins Gulf News "“The Indo-Pacific Bottlenose dolphin can only sustain an additional mortality of 1-2 per cent of the population size,” Ayesha Yousuf Al Beloushi, Director of Marine Biodiversity at EAD, said."

Rescue mission drift examiner"Some dog rescuers do become convinced that all people have evil intent toward animals and while their original mission was to rescue the fewer than 2 million dogs nation wide who end up homeless in a year from the 90 million who are loved and cared for, they lose sight of facts and reality. If the new mission becomes taking dogs from their owners or even ending dog ownership altogether, for our own good and the good of dogs, we have mission drift."

(Among other problems unique to nonprofit agencies...)

Mexico sees massive fish die-off at lake Associated Press "The cause of the die-off has not been determined but the state environment department said late Sunday it was not due to natural causes."

Out to lunch: Extraordinary moment thousands of Chinese trawlers head out to sea after three-month ban on fishing is lifted MailOnline "These incredible images of boats setting out from a harbour in Zhejiang Province, show just why China harvests more fish than any other country."

Rescuing Snails that have been stepped on Pet Snails "Snails are very resilient creatures and can recover from some pretty bad breaks but it is hard to know which will survive and which won't."

Rest in pieces: Staten Island's eerie ship graveyard New York Post "The Arthur Kill Ship Graveyard in Rossville, Staten Island, is becoming a tourist attraction."

Caesar Salad, Anyone? Boat US Magazine A photograph of a huge school of anchovies at La Jolla, CA.

Tracking ducks will tell scientists about wetlands London Free Press "The project is being completed by Long Point Waterfowl, which studies waterfowl and wetlands in the Great Lakes. The group has been doing research on Lake St. Clair just south of Mitchell's Bay."

Ancient Fish Remains Fertilize the Amazon Rainforest Discovery News "Ancient fish from Africa help fertilize the Amazon rainforest, researchers from the UK report, as dust storms blow from the Sahara across the Atlantic."

A Call to Action Against a Predator Fish With an Import Ban, App and Even Rodeos New York Times "MIAMI — They eat anything that fits in their mouths. They reproduce copiously and adapt effortlessly. And they have become as ubiquitous and pesky as rats — only prettier and more conniving."

Risso’s Dolphins – The Gray “Blackfish” Who Are Killed by Ignorance for Greed Seattle PI blog "During a meeting with the Taiji fishermen in January 2004, the fishermen told us that they do not only hunt dolphins for their meat or for sale to the dolphinarium industry. In their own words, they kill the dolphins “as a form of pest control.”"

Find Climate Clues By Watching Polar Bears Beta Wired "This requires a quick explanation of what makes sea ice so different from the cubes floating in your drink. "

To El Niño or not to El Niño, that is the question Deep Sea News "the probability that an El Niño will happen has been downgraded to a not-betting-all-the-benjamins-on-it chance of 65%."

Dead in the water? U.S. Coast Guard deals with aging fleet and mounting budget woes NJ "Constrained by tight budgets and ships that often rely on the ingenuity of crews able to fabricate spare parts no longer made, the U.S. Coast Guard has one of the oldest fleets afloat, and at times struggles to live up to its long-held motto, Semper Paratus — Latin for “Always Ready.” "

Jean-Claude Juncker puts birds in the line of fire The Telegraph "The clues are hidden in the somewhat opaque language of a letter he sent this month to Karmenu Vella, a Maltese politician whom he has designated as the new Commissioner for the Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries. In it, he asks him to “overhaul the existing environmental legislative framework to make it fit for purpose”, starting with “an in-depth evaluation” of the Birds and Habitats Directives ."

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sunken submarine

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Tenth Avenue

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going racing





“A designated, managed wilderness is, in a very important sense, 
a contradiction in terms. It could even be said that any area that 
is proclaimed wilderness and managed as such is not wilderness 
by these very acts! ” 

Roderick Nash

Taken from The Wilderness Paradox in Orion Magazine.


Beaky the Coot
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